thecivilwarparlor:

The South Has Risen Again… in Brazil — Meet the “Confederados”

No one has determined how many Americans immigrated to Brazil in the years following the end of the American Civil War. As noted in unpublished research, Betty Antunes de Oliveira found in port records of Rio de Janeiro that some 20,000 Americans entered Brazil from 1865 to 1885. Other researchers have estimated the number at 10,000. An unknown number returned to the United States when conditions in the southern US improved. Most immigrants adopted Brazilian citizenship

In the east of Brazil, two hours away from Sao Paulo, there’s a small community that has a direct blood link with people from the southern United States. They call themselves “Confederados”. Families with last names like Thomas, Strong or Williamson are living proof of the American emigration from Brazil that started after the Civil War. They left the devastation in the southern states to start over in Brazil, which was still a slaveholder nation. The Americans brought with them their expertise in farming, especially cotton, and helped start an agricultural revolution in Brazil. The descendants of these first immigrants are very proud of their roots and while they display the confederate flag proudly, they insist they are not racist and they denounce slavery.

The descendants foster a connection with their history through the Associação Descendência Americana (American Descendants Association), a descendant organization dedicated to preserving their unique mixed culture.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confederados

The lost colony of the Confederacy By Eugene C. Harter

thecivilwarparlor:

Confederate Immigrants To Brazil - Mr. Joseph Whitaker and Mrs. Isabel Norris
The Confederados is a cultural sub-group in the nation of Brazil. They are the descendants of people who fled from the Confederate States of America to Brazil with their families after the American Civil War. Santa Barbara do Óeste and Americana Santa Barbara, Vila Americana, New Texas and other towns in the State of São Paulo were heavily populated by Confederate soldiers.
At the end of the American Civil War, the Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil was interested in having cotton crops due to the high prices and, through Freemasonry contacts, recruited experienced cotton farmers for his nation. Dom Pedro offered the potential immigrants subsidies and tax breaks. General  Robert E. Lee advised Southerners not to flee to South America but many ignored his advice and set out to establish a new life away from the destruction of war. Many Southerners who took the Emperor’s offer had lost their land during the war, were unwilling to live under a conquering army, or simply did not expect an improvement in the South’s economic position. Although a number of historians say that the existence of slavery was an appeal, Alcides Gussi, an independent researcher of State University of Campinas, found that only four families owned a total of 66 slaves from 1868 to 1875. The Confederates were the first organized Protestant group to settle in Brazil
The first original Confederado known to arrive was the senator William H. Norris of  Alabama—the colony at Santa Barbara d’ Oeste is sometimes called the Norris Colony. Dom Pedro’s program was judged a success for both the Immigrants and the Brazilian government. The settlers brought with them modern agricultural techniques and new crops such as watermelon, and pecans that soon spread among the native Brazilian farmers. Some foods of the American South also crossed over and became part of general Brazilian culture such as chess pie, vinegar pie, and southern fried chicken. The original Confederados continued many elements of American culture  and established the first  Baptist churches in Brazil. They also established public schools and provided education to their female children, which was unusual in Brazil at the time.
Harter, Eugene C. (2000). The Lost Colony of the Confederacy. Texas A & M University Press.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Americans_in_Brazil



 

thecivilwarparlor:

Confederate Immigrants To Brazil - Mr. Joseph Whitaker and Mrs. Isabel Norris

The Confederados is a cultural sub-group in the nation of Brazil. They are the descendants of people who fled from the Confederate States of America to Brazil with their families after the American Civil War. Santa Barbara do Óeste and Americana Santa Barbara, Vila Americana, New Texas and other towns in the State of São Paulo were heavily populated by Confederate soldiers.

At the end of the American Civil War, the Emperor Dom Pedro II of Brazil was interested in having cotton crops due to the high prices and, through Freemasonry contacts, recruited experienced cotton farmers for his nation. Dom Pedro offered the potential immigrants subsidies and tax breaks. General  Robert E. Lee advised Southerners not to flee to South America but many ignored his advice and set out to establish a new life away from the destruction of war. Many Southerners who took the Emperor’s offer had lost their land during the war, were unwilling to live under a conquering army, or simply did not expect an improvement in the South’s economic position. Although a number of historians say that the existence of slavery was an appeal, Alcides Gussi, an independent researcher of State University of Campinas, found that only four families owned a total of 66 slaves from 1868 to 1875. The Confederates were the first organized Protestant group to settle in Brazil

The first original Confederado known to arrive was the senator William H. Norris of  Alabama—the colony at Santa Barbara d’ Oeste is sometimes called the Norris Colony. Dom Pedro’s program was judged a success for both the Immigrants and the Brazilian government. The settlers brought with them modern agricultural techniques and new crops such as watermelon, and pecans that soon spread among the native Brazilian farmers. Some foods of the American South also crossed over and became part of general Brazilian culture such as chess pie, vinegar pie, and southern fried chicken. The original Confederados continued many elements of American culture  and established the first  Baptist churches in Brazil. They also established public schools and provided education to their female children, which was unusual in Brazil at the time.

Harter, Eugene C. (2000). The Lost Colony of the Confederacy. Texas A & M University Press.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Americans_in_Brazil

 

woodendreams:

Hnausapollur, Iceland (by krumpa)

woodendreams:

Hnausapollur, Iceland (by krumpa)

housebatbetta:

Twiddly shreemp.

Wolves have a basic aversion to fighting and will do much to avoid any aggressive encounters.

It has been observed that a socialized wolf had become frantically upset upon witnessing its first dog fight. The distressed wolf intervened and eventually broke up the fight by pulling the aggressor off by the tail.

David Mech and Luigi Boitani, “Wolves: Behavior, ecology, and conservation”, 2003   (via wolveswolves)

(via wolveswolves)

wolveswolves:

Wolves vulnerable to contagious yawning
New research shows that when one wolf yawns, a packmate often does too.
Watching a pack of wolves at the Tama Zoological Park outside Tokyo last year, Japanese researchers found that the sight of a wolf yawning often triggered yawning in other wolves. And the more time the wolves spent together, the more likely it was to happen.
This is the first time this phenomenon has been observed in wolves, the researchers say.
For centuries, scientists have been puzzling over why we yawn. We tend to yawn more when we’re tired than when we’re not, but people and animals yawn at plenty of other times too. (How many of you have yawned so far just reading this article?) Some studies have found that yawning cools the brain, since the intake of outside air lowers internal temperature. Others say that yawning helps keeping us alert, which may explain why some people yawn right before doing something stressful, like jumping out of a plane.
Still, these theories don’t totally explain one of the more fascinating aspects of yawning: When we see someone else yawn, our chances of yawning go way up. University of Tokyo biologist Teresa Romero says that the leading hypothesis among scientists is that this contagious yawning is related to empathy—meaning an empathetic person or animal will feel tired when he or she observes another individual looking tired. (See “‘Contagious’ Yawning Occurs More Among Loved Ones.”)
Until now, contagious yawning was thought to be something only humans and other primates like chimpanzees do. Scientists who had looked for evidence of yawn contagion among domestic dogs had gotten mixed results—some studies seemed to show that one dog yawning triggered another dog to yawn, whereas other studies didn’t find any association.
Romero was especially interested in how dogs and wolves thought differently, so she figured that investigating contagious yawning among wolves might help provide a better understanding of the two species’ differences. 
Romero wanted the latest study to be in as realistic a setting as possible, so she and her colleagues spent 524 hours over five months observing a pack of 12 wolves at the Tama Zoological Park, which is known for its naturalistic enclosures. They noted every time a wolf yawned spontaneously, then recorded the responses of any wolves nearby that had seen the yawn. The researchers also measured how frequently the wolves yawned without seeing their packmates also doing so.
The researchers found that the wolves were significantly more likely to yawn after seeing another wolf do so than at other times. In 50 percent of their observations, a wolf yawned after seeing another do so; wolves yawned only 12 percent of the time when they didn’t see another wolf do so.
Yawns were also more likely to be contagious among wolves with close social bonds, the researchers report Wednesday in PLOS ONE.
Canine behavior expert Monique Udell of Oregon State University in Corvallis, who was not involved with the study, says some “previous studies concluded that contagious yawning was unique to dogs due to their domestication. This new study shows that might not be the case.”
Source

wolveswolves:

Wolves vulnerable to contagious yawning

New research shows that when one wolf yawns, a packmate often does too.

Watching a pack of wolves at the Tama Zoological Park outside Tokyo last year, Japanese researchers found that the sight of a wolf yawning often triggered yawning in other wolves. And the more time the wolves spent together, the more likely it was to happen.

This is the first time this phenomenon has been observed in wolves, the researchers say.

For centuries, scientists have been puzzling over why we yawn. We tend to yawn more when we’re tired than when we’re not, but people and animals yawn at plenty of other times too. (How many of you have yawned so far just reading this article?) Some studies have found that yawning cools the brain, since the intake of outside air lowers internal temperature. Others say that yawning helps keeping us alert, which may explain why some people yawn right before doing something stressful, like jumping out of a plane.

Still, these theories don’t totally explain one of the more fascinating aspects of yawning: When we see someone else yawn, our chances of yawning go way up. University of Tokyo biologist Teresa Romero says that the leading hypothesis among scientists is that this contagious yawning is related to empathy—meaning an empathetic person or animal will feel tired when he or she observes another individual looking tired. (See “‘Contagious’ Yawning Occurs More Among Loved Ones.”)

Until now, contagious yawning was thought to be something only humans and other primates like chimpanzees do. Scientists who had looked for evidence of yawn contagion among domestic dogs had gotten mixed results—some studies seemed to show that one dog yawning triggered another dog to yawn, whereas other studies didn’t find any association.

Romero was especially interested in how dogs and wolves thought differently, so she figured that investigating contagious yawning among wolves might help provide a better understanding of the two species’ differences.

Romero wanted the latest study to be in as realistic a setting as possible, so she and her colleagues spent 524 hours over five months observing a pack of 12 wolves at the Tama Zoological Park, which is known for its naturalistic enclosures. They noted every time a wolf yawned spontaneously, then recorded the responses of any wolves nearby that had seen the yawn. The researchers also measured how frequently the wolves yawned without seeing their packmates also doing so.

The researchers found that the wolves were significantly more likely to yawn after seeing another wolf do so than at other times. In 50 percent of their observations, a wolf yawned after seeing another do so; wolves yawned only 12 percent of the time when they didn’t see another wolf do so.

Yawns were also more likely to be contagious among wolves with close social bonds, the researchers report Wednesday in PLOS ONE.

Canine behavior expert Monique Udell of Oregon State University in Corvallis, who was not involved with the study, says some “previous studies concluded that contagious yawning was unique to dogs due to their domestication. This new study shows that might not be the case.”

Source

united-nations:

UNHCR is reporting that number of Syrian refugees passed 3 million people, amid reports of horrifying conditions inside the country.

Almost half of all Syrians have been forced to leave home and flee for their lives. One in every eight has fled across the border, fully a million people more than a year ago. A further 6.5 million are displaced within Syria. Over half of those uprooted are children.
Help is being provided, see: http://j.mp/XYyu9T

united-nations:

UNHCR is reporting that number of Syrian refugees passed 3 million people, amid reports of horrifying conditions inside the country.

Almost half of all Syrians have been forced to leave home and flee for their lives. One in every eight has fled across the border, fully a million people more than a year ago. A further 6.5 million are displaced within Syria. Over half of those uprooted are children.

Help is being provided, see: http://j.mp/XYyu9T

destroyed-and-abandoned:


Gigawatt The gigantic abandoned Power Plant in Belgium Source: proj3ctm4yh3murbex (reddit)
Read More

destroyed-and-abandoned:

Gigawatt The gigantic abandoned Power Plant in Belgium

Source: proj3ctm4yh3murbex (reddit)

Read More

Home Front Friday: Knit Your Bit

Home Front Friday is a regular series that highlights the can do spirit on the Home Front during World War II and illustrates how that spirit is still alive today!

During World War II you might have had a friend ask you to help the soldiers out by picking up your needles and yarn and knitting your bit.  The Red Cross popularized the slogan as early as World War I and then revived it with propaganda, leaflets and campaigns to get people to knit for soldiers.

On the Home Front during World War II, knitting served as one more way Americans could support the war effort. The November 24, 1941, cover story of the popular weekly magazine Life explained “How To Knit.” Along with basic instructions and a pattern for a simple knitted vest, the article advised, “To the great American question ‘What can I do to help the war effort?’ the commonest answer yet found is ‘Knit.’” Thousands of Americans picked up their needles to knit socks, mufflers and sweaters to keep American soldiers warm and provide them with a handcrafted reminder of home.

The Red Cross supplied patterns for sweaters, socks, mufflers, fingerless mitts (which allowed soldiers to keep their hands warm while shooting), toe covers (for use with a cast), stump covers and other garments. Cold, wet, sore feet were the enemy as surely as German or Japanese troops.

“The Navy needs men, but it also needs knitters,” newspapers cried.  After the war, some knitters dropped their needles for good. Others kept on knitting throughout their lives in a wide variety of colors — any color, many swore, but Army-issued khaki or olive drab!  Today knitting is popular once again and many enjoy the process of creating something useful.  Luckily, the spirit of sharing is alive and well too.  The Museum has been fortunate enough to be the receiving ground for a great civic service project for the past 8 years, running our own “Knit Your Bit” campaign, so you can send in your hand-made scarves to be distributed to veterans around the country.

Want to get involved?

Learn more about how you can Knit Your Bit.

Sign up for our e-newsletter.

Join us for a Knit-in and keep that generous knitting spirit alive while thanking our veterans.

art-of-swords:

Wakizashi Sword 

  • Culture: Japanese
  • Medium: steel, wood, bone
  • Measurements: blade length: 35.3 cm (13-3/4 inches)

Source: Copyright © 2014 Expertissim